Planning tool for buildings & districts

Economic parameters for the design of energy systems

For the planning and optimization of energy systems, costs are a central indicator. The net present value is often used to assess the overall costs and to compare different systems. To determine the net present value, data is required on the investment costs, maintenance costs and lifetimes of the technologies.

Investment costs of energy system technologies

The following table lists the investment costs for different technologies. It should be noted that investment costs cannot be quantified in general terms, as they depend heavily on the size of the plant and other influencing factors. The values in the table should therefore only be seen as a rough guide.

Table 1: Investment costs
Technology Investment cost
Combined heat and power 1200 €/kWel
Boiler 120 €/kWth
Electric heater/boiler 80 €/kWth
Absorption chiller 750 €/kWth
Compression chiller 1000 €/kWth
Electrolyzer 2500 €/kWel
Heat/cold storage 3€/l to 35 €/m³ (strongly size-dependent)
Battery 800 €/kWh
Hydrogen storage 750 €/kWh
Photovoltaics 900 €/kWp
Wind power 1000 €/kWel
Hydropower 1000 €/kWel
Fuel cell 3000 €/kWel
Solar thermal collectors 400 €/m²
Heat pump 1000 €/kWel, 350 €/kWth
Geothermal probes 1000 €/kWth (thermal extraction rate)

Maintenance costs of energy system technologies

Table 2: Annual maintenance costs (share of investment)
Technology Maintenance costs Source
Combined heat and power 8 % VDI 2067
Boiler 3 % VDI 2067
Electric heater/boiler 3 % VDI 2067
Absorption chiller 3 % VDI 2067
Compression chiller 3,5 % VDI 2067
Electrolyzer 6 %
Heat/cold storage 1 %
Battery 1 %
Hydrogen storage 2 %
Photovoltaics 1 %
Wind power 1 %
Hydropower 1 %
Fuel cell 6 %
Solar thermal collectors 1,5 % VDI 2067
Heat pump 2,5 % VDI 2067
Geothermal probes 3 % VDI 2067
In the techno-economic optimization of the nPro tool, the investment costs, maintenance costs, and lifetimes of the plants are included in the calculation.

Lifetime of energy system technologies

Table 3: Imputed service life
Technology Lifetime in years Source
Combined heat and power 15 VDI 2067
Boiler 20 VDI 2067
Electric heater/boiler 20 VDI 2067
Absorption chiller 18 VDI 2067
Compression chiller 15 VDI 2067
Electrolyzer 15
Heat/cold storage 20
Battery 10
Hydrogen storage 18
Photovoltaics 20
Wind power 20
Hydropower 40
Fuel cell 15
Solar thermal collectors 18 - 20 VDI 2067
Heat pump 18 - 20 VDI 2067
Geothermal probes 50 VDI 2067

Sources

  1. VDI 2067: Economic efficiency of building installations: Fundamentals and economic calculation, 2012.
  2. Danish Energy Agendy and Energinet: Technology Data: Generation of Electricity and District heating. March 2022.
  3. Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH: Energetische Kenngrößen für Heizungsanlagen im Bestand. 2002.
  4. Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA): Ableitung von Kostenfunktionen für Komponenten der rationellen Energienutzung, 2002.
  5. Forschungsstelle für Energiewirtschaft e.V.: Kostenanalyse Wärmespeicher bis 10.000 l Speichergröße, 2016.

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